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America Through Pictures: A Research Guide: Step 4: Annotated Bibliography

Use the following guide as a reference for your picture projects for Ms. Sepcie and Mr. Bresnan's U.S. History classes.


Compile a list of sources and provide a rationale for their use in a paper by completing an annotated bibliography

Annotated Bibliography Directions and Resources

What is an Annotated Bibliography?

A list of citations of sources to be used in a research paper. Each citation is followed by a brief annotation that provides a summary of the source, along with reasons why the source is both useful and reliable.

Please use the following questions to guide your annotated bibliography:

1. Six sources of information:

  • From varied sources
  • Academic and reliable
  • Chicago Style Bibliography Citation

2. One paragraph annotation for each of the six sources providing the following information:

  • Qualifications of the author
    • Why is the author able to speak on the subject? What makes them an "expert"?
    • Tip: You might have to Google search the author in order to find a more information. If the author is not available, provide the credibility of the publisher or source of information
  • Bias/standpoint of the author
    • What bias or stance is the author/publisher taking? How might this influence the information provided?
    • Tip: Some articles that you read tend to lean towards one side or provide a critical analysis. If a stance or point of view is not provided, what is the purpose of this source? (i.e.: to inform, summarize) How did you determine this?
  • Brief description of the content
    • What are the main points of the article? Any conclusions made about the subject?
    • Tip: Avoid details in your summary. Keep it to just the main ideas of the article or source (i.e.: Who, what, where, why)
  • Why do you plan on using this in your paper?
    • What makes this source relevant to your topic or thesis?
    • Tip: In order to address relevancy, try to go beyond just claiming that it's simply related to your topic, but rather aim answer the question "How does the information included in this source help prove my thesis?". 

How to Cite Your Sources

Basic Paper Format

  • Title Page: Title in all caps a third way down the page, Your name, Course name, date paper is due. 
  • Font size 12, Times new roman, 1 inch margins, double spaced
  • Footnotes for in text citations
  • Bibliography page at the end with all sources cited

Works Cited Format


  • Footnote

   1. Firstname Lastname, Title of Book (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), page number.

  • Bibliography

Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication.


  • Footnote:

1. Susan Peck MacDonald, “The Erasure of Language,” College Composition and Communication 58, no. 4 (2007): 619.

  • Bibliography:

MacDonald, Susan Peck. “The Erasure of Language.” College Composition and Communication 58, no. 4 (2007): 585-625.


  • Footnote: 

 1. Firstname Lastname, “Title of Web Page,” Publishing Organization or Name of Website in Italics, publication date and/or access date if available, URL.

  • Bibliography: 

Lastname, Firstname. “Title of Web Page.” Publishing Organization or Name of Website in Italics. Publication date and/or access date if available. URL.

Need more help with Chicago citations and format?

Citing Government Documents in Chicago Style: Specific descriptions and examples on how to cite supreme court, legal, and other government documents

Purdue OWL Chicago Writer's Guide: Comprehensive guide on how to format and cite your Chicago Style paper. Use the left hand index to quickly find information. 

Footnotes vs. Bibliography EntriesYou are expected to use citations in both the footnotes of your paper (after you cite a source) and in your bibliography page in the last page of your paper. Please refer to this doc to see how these two are cited differently

Using Footnote CitationsRefer to the following doc for Chicago Basics on citing footnotes. Please note the differences between citing footnotes as opposed to bibliography entries. You are expected to incorporate both citation styles.